Study of Rocks: Introduction and importance of Geological knowledge. Rocks: their origin, structure and texture. Classification of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks and their suitability as engineering materials, Weathering and erosion of rocks, Stratification, Lamination bedding. Outcrop-its relation to topography. Dip and Strike of bed. Overlap, outlier and Inlier.

Study of Minerals: Physical properties of minerals. Detailed study of certain rock forming minerals. Alkali

Rock Deformation & EarthquakeFolds, Faults, Joints and unconformities: Their classification, causes and relation to engineering behaviour of rock masses. Landslides, its causes and preventive measures. Earthquake, its causes, classification, seismic zones of India and its geological consideration.

 Geophysical Exploration and Geological Investigation: Geophysical exploration methods for sub-surface structure. Underground water and its origin. Aquifer & Aquiclude. Artesian wells. Underground provinces and its role as geological hazard. Site selection for dam, reservoir, tunnel, bridge and highway.

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