UNIT – 1  Origin and classification: Preview of Geotechnical field problems in Civil Engineering, Soil formation, transport and deposit, Soil composition, Basic definitions, Weight-volume relationships, Clay minerals, Soil structure, Index properties, Particle size analysis, Soil classification.

UNIT – 2  Soil Hydraulics: Modes of occurrence of water in soil. Stress conditions in soil- total, effective and neutral stresses and relationships. Permeability – Bernaulli’s equation, Darcy’s Law, hydraulic conductivity, laboratory determination of hydraulic conductivity, equivalent hydraulic conductivity in stratified soil.

Seepage- Laplace equation of continuity, flow nets, seepage calculation from a flow net, flow nets in anisotropic soils, seepage through earth dam, critical hydraulic gradient and quick sand condition.

Soil compaction, water content – dry unit weight relationships. Factors controlling compaction. Field compaction equipment; field compaction control; Proctor needle method.

UNIT – 3  Stresses in soils: Normal and shear Stresses on a plane, Stresses due to applied loads, Boussinesq’s solution for a point load, line load, strip load, uniformly loaded circular and rectangular areas, Isobar and pressure bulb concept, stress distribution on horizontal and vertical planes, Newmark’s chart and its application, contact pressure.

Consolidation: Consolidation and compaction, primary and secondary consolidation, Terzaghi’s one dimensional theory of consolidation, Consolidation test, Normal and Over Consolidated soils, Over Consolidation Ratio, determination of coefficient of consolidation, consolidation under construction loading.


UNIT – 4  Shear Strength: Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, shear strength parameters and determination; direct and tri-axial shear test; unconfined compression test; vane shear test; sensitivity and thixotropy; pore pressure, Skempton’ s pore pressure coefficients. Earth pressure: Classical theories, Coulomb and Rankine approaches for frictional and c-φ soils, Smooth and rough walls, Inclined backfill, graphical methods of earth pressure determination. Types of retaining structures.

UNIT – 5  Characterization of ground, site investigations, groundwater level, methods of drilling, sampling, in situ tests, SPT, CPT, DCPT.

Sub-Structures: Introduction to foundations- types and differences; choice; loads; design philosophies.

Bearing capacity of shallow foundations; modes of failures; corrections for size, shape, depth and eccentricity; provisions of IS code of practice. Introduction to deep foundations.