Unit – I Difference between open channel flow and pipe flow, geometrical parameters of a channel. Continuity equation for steady and unsteady flow. Critical depth, concepts of specific energy and specific force, application of specific energy principle for interpretation of open channel phenomena, flow through vertical and horizontal contractions.

Unit – IIChezy’s and Manning’s equations for uniform flow in open channel, Velocity distribution, most efficient channel section, compound channels.

Unit – IIIEquation of gradually varied flow and its limitations, flow classification and surface profiles, integration of varied flow equation by analytical, graphical and numerical methods, Flow in channels of non-linear alignment specifically for the case of a bend.

Unit – IV Classical hydraulic jump, Evaluation of the jump elements in rectangular and non-rectangular channels on horizontal and sloping beds.Rotodynamic pumps, classification on different basis, basic equations, Velocity triangles, manometric head, efficiencies, cavitation in pumps, characteristics, curves.

Unit – V Open channel surge, celerity of the gravity wave, deep and shallow water waves, Rectangular free overfall. Rotodynamic Machines, Pelton Turbine, equations for jet and rotor size, efficiency, spear valve, reaction turbines, Francis and Kaplan type, Head on reaction turbine, unit quantities, similarity laws and specific speed, cavitation, characteristic curves.

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