Unit – I

Introduction: Basic concepts of free surface flows, velocity and pressure distribution, Mass, energy and momentum principle for prismatic and non-prismatic channels, Review of Uniform flow: Standard equations, hydraulically efficient channel sections, compound sections, Energy-depth relations: Concept of specific energy, specific force, critical flow, critical depth, hydraulic exponents,and channel transitions.

Unit – II

Gradually Varied Flow (GVF): Equation of gradually varied flow and its limitations, flow classification and surface profiles, Control sections, Computation methods and analysis: Integration of varied flow equation by analytical, graphical and advanced numerical methods, Transitions of subcritical and supercritical flow, flow in curved channels.

Unit – III

Rapidly Varied Flow (RVF): Characteristics of rapidly varied flow, Classical hydraulic jump, Evaluation of the jump elements in rectangular and non-rectangular channels on horizontal and sloping beds, Hydraulic jump in gradually and suddenly expanding channels, submerged hydraulic jump, rolling and sky jump, use of jump as an energy dissipater,

Flow measurement: by sharp crested and broad crested weirs, critical depth flumes, sluice gate, Free overfall.

Rapidly varied unsteady flow: Equation of motion for unsteady flow, “Celerity” of the gravity wave, deep and shallow water waves, open channel positive and negative surge,


Spatially Varied Flow (SVF): Basic principles, Differential SVF equations for increasing and decreasing discharge, Classifications and solutions, Numerical methods for profile computation, Flow over side-weir, and Bottom-rack.


Unit – V

Flow in channel of non-linear alignment and non-prismatic channel sections, Design considerations for subcritical and super critical flows, Design of culvert.