UNIT – I 

Hydrology : Hydrologic Cycle. Water Budget Equation, Hydrologic system, Precipitation : Types, measurements and analysis, error in estimation, missing data, consistency of rainfall records, Intensity during frequency (IDF) and probabilitic maximum Precipitation (PMP) curves. Evaporation and consumptive use: Process affecting factors, estimation and measurement techniques.

Infiltration : Process affecting factors, measurement and estimation, Infiltration Indices.

UNIT – II

Surface Runoff: Components and factors affecting runoff, methods of estimation of runoff volume and peak runoff, rating curve, Rainfall – runoff relationships Hydrograph analysis: components, factors affecting hydrographs, base flow separation, Direct Runoff Hydrograph, Unit Hydrograph: Theory and assumptions. Derivation of Unit Hydrograph, Synthetic Unit Hydrograph Introduction to computer models for rainfall runoff analysis.

Irrigation: Developments in India, Necessity and types Advantages & disadvantages of irrigation. Functions of water in plant growth, Methods of Irrigation, Water requirement of crops. Irrigation frequency, Irrigation efficiencies, Principal crops and crop season, crop rotation.

Canal irrigation: Classes and alignment, Parts of a canal system, Commanded area, curves in channels, channel losses.

UNIT – III

Sediment Transportation: Suspended and Bed load and its estimation

Irrigation channels: Types: lined and unlined, silt theories: Kennedy’s and Lacey’s Design procedure for irrigation channels, Longitudinal cross section, Schedule of area statistics and channel dimensions, use of Garret’s Diagrams in channel design, cross sections of an Irrigation channel, Computer programs for design of channels Lining of Irrigation Canals: Advantages and types, factors for selection of a particular type, design of lined channels, cross section of lined channels, Economics of canal lining. Water Logging: Definition, effects, causes and anti-water logging measures, Drainage of water logged land, Types of drains open and closed, spacing of closed drains.

UNIT – IV

 

Regulation and control of canal system: Purpose, Types of canal regulation works and their functional aspects Irrigation Outlets: Requirements, types, non-modular, semi-module and rigid module, selection criterion River Training: Objective and need, classification of rivers, and river training works, meandering, stages,methods of river training, bank protection, Methods for measurement of discharge.

UNIT – V

Ground Water Hydrology: Zones of underground water, Aquifers and their types, important terms, Determination of discharge through unconfined and confined aquifers with steady flow conditions, Interference among wells, determination of aquifer constants, Well loss and specific capacity, efficiency of a well, types of water wells, bored and open wells, specific yield of a well, Relative merits of well and canal irrigation, type of tube wells, well surrounding and well development, Suitable site selection for a tube well, Types of open wells, Methods of lifting water. Infiltration galleries.

 

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