Basic element or the parts of a building:

Foundation: Building activity starts
with digging the ground for foundation and then building it.
Plinth:portion of the wall between the ground level and the ground floor level is called
plinth.,
Walls and columns: function of walls and columns is to transfer the load of the structure
vertically downwards to transfer it to the foundation,
Sills, lintels and chajjas: window frame is placed over 50 mm to 75 mm thick plain concrete course provided over the masonry. This course is called as sill,

Lintels are the R.C.C. or stone beams provided over the door and window openings to
transfer the load transversely so as to see that door or window frame is not stressed excessively,

Chajja is the projection given outside the wall to doors and windows
Doors and windows: the function of a door is to give access to different rooms, Windows are provided to get light and ventilation.
Floors: The ground floor is prepared by filling brickbats, waste stones, gravel and well compacted with not less than 100 mm sand layer on its top. A lean concrete of 1 : 4 : 8, 100 mm thick is laid. On this, a damp proof course may be provided.
Roofs: top most portion of the building which provides top cover to the building
Steps, stairs and lifts: these are the part to provide convenience for accessing from one floor to other,

BASIC POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED DURING CONSTRUCTION  OF A BUILDING

1.Strength and stability
2.Dimensional stability
3.Resistance to dampness
4.Resistance to fire
5.Sound & Heat insulation
6.Durability
7.Security against burglary
8.Lighting and ventilation
9.Comforts and convenience

SUITABLE ORIENTATION OF ROOMS IN BUILDING

1.Kitchen–eastern aspect.
2.Dining room–southern aspect of enjoying winter sun.
3. Drawing and living room–southern or south-eastern aspect to enjoy winter sun.
4. Bedrooms–western or south-western aspect of enjoying the breeze in summer.
5.Reading room, classroom, stairs, a northern aspect of enjoying diffused light.

OTHER POINTS LIKE ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND EASE OF ACCESSING, ROOMINESS AND SAFETY FACTORS IN TIME OF DISASTER SHOULD ALSO BE CONSIDERED DURING PLANNING A BUILDING”

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