Conditions to be considered when designing and implementing foundations:
First, the foundation soil should be homogenous, non-altered, and fishy as possible, while considering possible soil movements after incorporation.
Second: The integrity of the data bearing the soil after the confirmation of its type, taking into account the safety factor necessary for the design to be sufficient ground area for the distribution of loads on the soil and face all possibilities, taking into account the depth and dimensions of the basis with the possibility of change of forces affecting the basis.
Third: The distribution of pressure and loads of the building regularly on the basis, regardless of the kind to avoid the irregular landing that causes cracks and cracks, taking into account the possibility of lack of capacity to withstand the soil.
Fourth: take into account the stability of the surface of the base mattress with the outcome of loads and also take into account the applicability of the outcome of the pressure with the axis of the foundation, as possible, but in the case of the walls adjacent to the neighbors, replaced by strengthening and linking them with armed ties and the work of heel base.
Fifth: taking into account the design of mixtures of the basis of materials suitable for the forces of the movement and the conditions of the site of movement and moisture and others.
Sixth: To make necessary insulation precautions against humidity and vibration, site conditions and the possibility of passing connections or facilities during the foundations or the existence of old foundations on the site.
Seventh: the distribution of the building loads on the columns regularly and the placement of columns or walls and therefore bases on the distances proportional to the loads that have homogeneous.
Eighth: Take into account the following:
1 – Calculate the permanent loads alone and they are called dead loads.
2. Calculation of live loads alone is known as an additional load.
3- Calculating the mobile loads alone, such as cars and cranes.
4 – Calculation of the self-loads of the columns themselves and the base and estimated at about 10: 5% of the loads.
5 – Estimated wind pressures in the case of high buildings.
6 – Estimated water and dust pressure of retaining walls and taking into account the density and height of the soil.
7 – estimated the forces of friction between the dust and the bodies of the walls.
8 – The weights of the soil above the feet of the foundations and the heel in the calculation of pressure from the top to bottom and may neglect the security of the account.
* The design engineer or executor should consider the following:
1. If a soft layer is found at a distance from the base level, the additional pressure on that layer must not increase its safe loading capacity.
2. If the base is close to a natural tendency in the soil, the soil must be protected from loss of its ability to resist shear by making sand walls or working the foundation more deeply than the sliding surface.
3. The safety factor in estimating the safe efforts of soft clay lands is increased because the carrying of the vertical foundation causes soft side movements with a drop in the building.
4. If clay or clay soil is compacted to interfere with its granules under the building or due to vibrations, the soil volume decreases and causes the soil to fall. This is treated with soil blood by vibrating vibrations or by poking the piles around it or by immersing the soil in water in case of dehydration.
5 – moving water in the ground rules towards sources of heat, which loses the soil a large part of the water and harden and increase in drought until it shrinks and landing.
6. The building is dropped if the ground water is withdrawn or decreased with the hardening of the soil and the drop increases as the clouds are rapid and therefore the water withdrawal should be organised in a slow and slow manner.
7 – Excavating near the building and the construction of new buildings adjacent because of the reduction of the ability to withstand the soil and therefore must provide adequate stents.
8. Evaporation on and around the foundation, especially in sandy soil, causes the collapse of the foundation, especially if the water movement is rapid.
9. Leaking water to dry clay or dry clay soil may cause soil fall or stretch with failure to resist shear effort.
10 – Do not leave the ground in the mud or clay soil to be exposed for a long time so as not to change the natural properties of the soil.
11. The foundations shall be used with alumina cement instead of Portland if the soil contains harmful or decomposed chemicals.
12. The main water pipes passing through the site shall be higher than the foundation level so as not to lead to the possibility of any pipe being blown into the soil by the force of the flow of water.
13. Vertical force on the foundations shall be calculated as follows if the axle of the load is:
Dead load + live load + self-weight basis – soil weight joking
14. There should be no disparities in the soil effort under the different base rules of more than 25% of the maximum permissible effort.
15. In the case of the pressure of soil or water on the retaining walls or in the case of horizontal forces of the neighbouring facilities, the maximum effort resulting from the vertical outcome of the forces acting on the base shall not exceed the permissible loading voltage for the soil. The horizontal result shall not exceed the friction force Between the bottom of the foundation and the soil in contact with it, plus part of the negative pressure of the soil above the foundations.
16. In the case of large disparities in the pressure under the parts of the building separates the foundations of the large loads from the rest of the building as well as the penalty exposed to vibrations.
17. In the case of the use of complete bedding foundations, ie, the lattice and the assumption of uniformity of the distribution of soil stress efforts under the lattice, reduced efforts should be made for the base material.
–  depth of the foundation level.
– View the foundation.
– Soil density.
– The value of the internal friction angle of the soil.
– The strength of cohesion.

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